Psychology

Attitude Assessment

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Science  25 Nov 2011:
Vol. 334, Issue 6059, pp. 1033
DOI: 10.1126/science.334.6059.1033-c

An attitude that a person is willing to report in written or verbal form is explicit, whereas that person's implicit attitude can be elicited via the Implicit Association Test. The IAT measures response choices made under time pressure and hence can be thought of as short-circuiting conscious decision-making processes. Depending on task or situation, implicit or explicit attitudes can be predictive of behaviors, and they need not coincide. Yoshida et al. describe a new measure that they call implicit normative evaluation and show in a series of studies that it constitutes a separable component of what the traditional IAT measures. That is, implicit attitudes—which develop on the basis of direct interactions with the object of the attitude—and implicit normative evaluations—which arise as a consequence of exposure to how others regard the object—may only weakly correlate with each other, and the IAT might be more accurately seen as a composite measure. They show also that implicit and explicit normative evaluations can be separated by examining how the former change with the increasing length of time spent in a new culture; the latter are relatively fixed, in accordance with their being the product of conscious and deliberate thought.

J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.09.013 (2011).

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