Review

Natural SIV Hosts: Showing AIDS the Door

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Science  09 Mar 2012:
Vol. 335, Issue 6073, pp. 1188-1193
DOI: 10.1126/science.1217550

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Lessons from SIV

HIV infection in humans is a chronic infection and, if left untreated, the majority of infected individuals will succumb to AIDS. Many species of African nonhuman primates are chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV); however, in the majority of these species, the animals remain healthy despite the presence of high viral loads. Chahroudi et al. (p. 1188) review the underlying immune mechanisms that help protect natural hosts from progressing to AIDS and how these responses differ from what is observed in HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected nonhuman primate species that develop AIDS.

Abstract

Many species of African nonhuman primates are naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) in the wild and in captivity. In contrast to HIV-infected humans, these natural SIV hosts typically do not develop AIDS, despite chronic infection with a highly replicating virus. In this Review, we discuss the most recent advances on the mechanisms of protection from disease progression in natural SIV hosts, with emphasis on how they differ from pathogenic HIV/SIV infections of humans and rhesus macaques. These mechanisms include: (i) resolution of immune activation after acute infection, (ii) restricted pattern of target cell infection, and (iii) protection from mother-to-infant transmission. We highlight the areas that should be pursued in future studies, focusing on potential applications for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection.

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