Research Article

An Overlapping Protein-Coding Region in Influenza A Virus Segment 3 Modulates the Host Response

Science  13 Jul 2012:
Vol. 337, Issue 6091, pp. 199-204
DOI: 10.1126/science.1222213

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Influenza's Cryptic Constraint

Because of the well-known pandemic potential of influenza viruses, it is important to understand the range of molecular interactions between the virus and its host. Despite years of intensive research on the virus, Jagger et al. (p. 199, published online 28 June; see the Perspective by Yewdell and Ince) have found that the influenza A virus has been hiding a gene in its small negative-sense RNA genome. An overlapping open reading frame was found contained in the PA viral RNA polymerase gene, which is accessed by ribosomal frameshifting to produce a fusion protein containing the N-terminal messenger RNA (mRNA) endonuclease domain of PA and an alternative C-terminal X domain. The resulting polypeptide, PA-X, selectively degrades host mRNAs and, in a mouse model of infection, modulated cellular immune responses, thus limiting viral pathogenesis.

Abstract

Influenza A virus (IAV) infection leads to variable and imperfectly understood pathogenicity. We report that segment 3 of the virus contains a second open reading frame (“X-ORF”), accessed via ribosomal frameshifting. The frameshift product, termed PA-X, comprises the endonuclease domain of the viral PA protein with a C-terminal domain encoded by the X-ORF and functions to repress cellular gene expression. PA-X also modulates IAV virulence in a mouse infection model, acting to decrease pathogenicity. Loss of PA-X expression leads to changes in the kinetics of the global host response, which notably includes increases in inflammatory, apoptotic, and T lymphocyte–signaling pathways. Thus, we have identified a previously unknown IAV protein that modulates the host response to infection, a finding with important implications for understanding IAV pathogenesis.

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