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Structural Basis for Allosteric Regulation of GPCRs by Sodium Ions

Science  13 Jul 2012:
Vol. 337, Issue 6091, pp. 232-236
DOI: 10.1126/science.1219218

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GPCR Close-Up

Structures of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) determined in the past few years, have provided insight into the function of this important family of membrane proteins. Liu et al. (p. 232) used a protein-engineering strategy to produce a stabilized version of the human A2Aadenosine receptor (A2AAR). The high-resolution structure reveals the position of about 60 internal waters, which suggests an almost continuous channel in the GPCR and can explain the allosteric effects of Na+ on ligand binding and how cholesterol may contribute to GPCR stabilization.

Abstract

Pharmacological responses of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) can be fine-tuned by allosteric modulators. Structural studies of such effects have been limited due to the medium resolution of GPCR structures. We reengineered the human A2A adenosine receptor by replacing its third intracellular loop with apocytochrome b562RIL and solved the structure at 1.8 angstrom resolution. The high-resolution structure allowed us to identify 57 ordered water molecules inside the receptor comprising three major clusters. The central cluster harbors a putative sodium ion bound to the highly conserved aspartate residue Asp2.50. Additionally, two cholesterols stabilize the conformation of helix VI, and one of 23 ordered lipids intercalates inside the ligand-binding pocket. These high-resolution details shed light on the potential role of structured water molecules, sodium ions, and lipids/cholesterol in GPCR stabilization and function.

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