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Antibiotic Mechanisms Revisited
Several recent studies have suggested that bactericidal antibiotics kill cells by a common mechanism involving reactive oxygen species (ROS). Two groups tested this hypothesis using diverse experiments, with both finding that quinolone, lactam, and aminoglycoside antibiotics had similar efficacy for killing in the presence or absence of oxygen (or nitrate). Liu et al. (p. 1210) saw no increase in hydrogen peroxide production in antibiotic-exposed cells and found no association between antibiotic exposure and the expected symptoms of oxidative damage, such as the breakdown of iron-sulfur clusters in enzymes or of hydroxyl radical injuries to DNA. Similarly, Keren et al. (p. 1213) found no correlation between the production of ROS, inferred from hydroxyphenyl fluorescein dye measurements, and bacterial survival, nor was there any significant protective effect engendered by thiourea. The results do not support a common mode of action for bactericidal antibiotics mediated by ROS.
Bactericidal antibiotics kill by modulating their respective targets. This traditional view has been challenged by studies that propose an alternative, unified mechanism of killing, whereby toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in the presence of antibiotics. We found no correlation between an individual cell's probability of survival in the presence of antibiotic and its level of ROS. An ROS quencher, thiourea, protected cells from antibiotics present at low concentrations, but the effect was observed under anaerobic conditions as well. There was essentially no difference in survival of bacteria treated with various antibiotics under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. This suggests that ROS do not play a role in killing of bacterial pathogens by antibiotics.