Report

(R)-2-Hydroxyglutarate Is Sufficient to Promote Leukemogenesis and Its Effects Are Reversible

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science  29 Mar 2013:
Vol. 339, Issue 6127, pp. 1621-1625
DOI: 10.1126/science.1231677

You are currently viewing the abstract.

View Full Text

Log in to view the full text

Log in through your institution

Log in through your institution

Focusing on the Right Metabolite

A variety of human cancers, including acute leukemias and brain tumors, have mutations in the genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1, IDH2), which cause overproduction of a metabolite called 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Losman et al. (p. 1621, published online 7 February) show that the R- but not the S-enantiomer of 2HG can transform cells and that R-2HG mediates transformation at least in part through effects on protein modifying EglN prolyl hydroxylases. Importantly, the transforming activity of R-2HG was reversible, suggesting that therapeutic strategies focusing on inhibition of R-2HG production or inhibition of EglN prolyl hydroxylases merit further investigation.

Abstract

Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2, the genes coding for isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2, are common in several human cancers, including leukemias, and result in overproduction of the (R)-enantiomer of 2-hydroxyglutarate [(R)-2HG]. Elucidation of the role of IDH mutations and (R)-2HG in leukemogenesis has been hampered by a lack of appropriate cell-based models. Here, we show that a canonical IDH1 mutant, IDH1 R132H, promotes cytokine independence and blocks differentiation in hematopoietic cells. These effects can be recapitulated by (R)-2HG, but not (S)-2HG, despite the fact that (S)-2HG more potently inhibits enzymes, such as the 5′-methylcytosine hydroxylase TET2, that have previously been linked to the pathogenesis of IDH mutant tumors. We provide evidence that this paradox relates to the ability of (S)-2HG, but not (R)-2HG, to inhibit the EglN prolyl hydroxylases. Additionally, we show that transformation by (R)-2HG is reversible.

View Full Text