Melting of Iron at Earth’s Inner Core Boundary Based on Fast X-ray Diffraction

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Science  26 Apr 2013:
Vol. 340, Issue 6131, pp. 464-466
DOI: 10.1126/science.1233514

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Hot Enough to Melt Iron

Earth's core is divided into a fluid outer core and a solid inner core, both composed predominately of iron at extremely high pressures and temperatures. The boundary between these two regions is largely controlled by the melting point of iron at ∼330 GPa, which in turn influences heat transfer and geodynamo generation. Anzellini et al. (p. 464, see the Perspective by Fei) compressed iron in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell, tracking its structure and texture by using time-resolved x-ray diffraction as the pressure increased to 200 GPa. The melting curve suggests the possibility of high heat flux and partial melting at the core-mantle boundary.


Earth’s core is structured in a solid inner core, mainly composed of iron, and a liquid outer core. The temperature at the inner core boundary is expected to be close to the melting point of iron at 330 gigapascal (GPa). Despite intensive experimental and theoretical efforts, there is little consensus on the melting behavior of iron at these extreme pressures and temperatures. We present static laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments up to 200 GPa using synchrotron-based fast x-ray diffraction as a primary melting diagnostic. When extrapolating to higher pressures, we conclude that the melting temperature of iron at the inner core boundary is 6230 ± 500 kelvin. This estimation favors a high heat flux at the core-mantle boundary with a possible partial melting of the mantle.

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