Review

Bacterial Subversion of Host Innate Immune Pathways

Science  10 May 2013:
Vol. 340, Issue 6133, pp. 697-701
DOI: 10.1126/science.1235771

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Defense and Counter-Defense

Provided a pathogen can enter the body and survive coughing and spluttering, peristalsis, and mucus, the first active responses the host evokes to an invading organism will be at the level of the first cell encountered, well before classical cellular immunity and antibody responses are initiated. Randow et al. (p. 701) review the range of intracellular defenses against incoming pathogens and describe how compartmental boundaries within the cell provide multiple levels at which pathogens can be thwarted in their attempts to subjugate the cell to do their bidding. Baxt et al. (p. 697) review the range of evasion tactics that bacterial pathogens can summon to counter host repulsion and establish a niche in which to replicate and ensure onward transmission.

Abstract

The pathogenesis of infection is a continuously evolving battle between the human host and the infecting microbe. The past decade has brought a burst of insights into the molecular mechanisms of innate immune responses to bacterial pathogens. In parallel, multiple specific mechanisms by which microorganisms subvert these host responses have been uncovered. This Review highlights recently characterized mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens avoid killing by innate host responses, including autophagy pathways and a proinflammatory cytokine transcriptional response, and by the manipulation of vesicular trafficking to avoid the toxicity of lysosomal enzymes.

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