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Ribosomal Protein SA Haploinsufficiency in Humans with Isolated Congenital Asplenia

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Science  24 May 2013:
Vol. 340, Issue 6135, pp. 976-978
DOI: 10.1126/science.1234864

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Spleen Knockout Explained

Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is a rare disorder where patients are born without a spleen and are at increased risk of bacterial infection but have no other developmental abnormalities. Through sequence analysis of familial and sporadic cases, Bolze et al. (p. 976, published online 11 April) found that ICA patients carry mutations in the gene encoding ribosomal protein SA and as a result express about half the normal amount of this protein. The mechanism by which reduced expression of a housekeeping protein causes an organ-specific defect remains unclear.

Abstract

Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is characterized by the absence of a spleen at birth in individuals with no other developmental defects. The patients are prone to life-threatening bacterial infections. The unbiased analysis of exomes revealed heterozygous mutations in RPSA in 18 patients from eight kindreds, corresponding to more than half the patients and over one-third of the kindreds studied. The clinical penetrance in these kindreds is complete. Expression studies indicated that the mutations carried by the patients—a nonsense mutation, a frameshift duplication, and five different missense mutations—cause autosomal dominant ICA by haploinsufficiency. RPSA encodes ribosomal protein SA, a component of the small subunit of the ribosome. This discovery establishes an essential role for RPSA in human spleen development.

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