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Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain

Science  18 Oct 2013:
Vol. 342, Issue 6156, pp. 373-377
DOI: 10.1126/science.1241224

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Taking Out the Trash

The purpose of sleep remains mysterious. Using state-of-the-art in vivo two-photon imaging to directly compare two arousal states in the same mouse, Xie et al. (p. 373; see the Perspective by Herculano-Houzel) found that metabolic waste products of neural activity were cleared out of the sleeping brain at a faster rate than during the awake state. This finding suggests a mechanistic explanation for how sleep serves a restorative function, in addition to its well-described effects on memory consolidation.

Abstract

The conservation of sleep across all animal species suggests that sleep serves a vital function. We here report that sleep has a critical function in ensuring metabolic homeostasis. Using real-time assessments of tetramethylammonium diffusion and two-photon imaging in live mice, we show that natural sleep or anesthesia are associated with a 60% increase in the interstitial space, resulting in a striking increase in convective exchange of cerebrospinal fluid with interstitial fluid. In turn, convective fluxes of interstitial fluid increased the rate of β-amyloid clearance during sleep. Thus, the restorative function of sleep may be a consequence of the enhanced removal of potentially neurotoxic waste products that accumulate in the awake central nervous system.

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