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Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase δ Gene Mutation Predisposes to Respiratory Infection and Airway Damage

Science  15 Nov 2013:
Vol. 342, Issue 6160, pp. 866-871
DOI: 10.1126/science.1243292

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Answers from Exomes

Exome sequencing, which targets only the protein-coding regions of the genome, has the potential to identify the underlying genetic causes of rare inherited diseases. Angulo et al. (p. 866, published online 17 October; see Perspective by Conley and Fruman) performed exome sequencing of individuals from seven unrelated families with severe, recurrent respiratory infections. The patients carried the same mutation in the gene coding for the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ). The mutation caused aberrant activation of this kinase, which plays a key role in immune cell signaling. Drugs inhibiting PI3Kδ are already in clinical trials for other disorders.

Abstract

Genetic mutations cause primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) that predispose to infections. Here, we describe activated PI3K-δ syndrome (APDS), a PID associated with a dominant gain-of-function mutation in which lysine replaced glutamic acid at residue 1021 (E1021K) in the p110δ protein, the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ), encoded by the PIK3CD gene. We found E1021K in 17 patients from seven unrelated families, but not among 3346 healthy subjects. APDS was characterized by recurrent respiratory infections, progressive airway damage, lymphopenia, increased circulating transitional B cells, increased immunoglobulin M, and reduced immunoglobulin G2 levels in serum and impaired vaccine responses. The E1021K mutation enhanced membrane association and kinase activity of p110δ. Patient-derived lymphocytes had increased levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphorylated AKT protein and were prone to activation-induced cell death. Selective p110δ inhibitors IC87114 and GS-1101 reduced the activity of the mutant enzyme in vitro, which suggested a therapeutic approach for patients with APDS.

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