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Genetic and Molecular Basis of Drug Resistance and Species-Specific Drug Action in Schistosome Parasites

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Science  13 Dec 2013:
Vol. 342, Issue 6164, pp. 1385-1389
DOI: 10.1126/science.1243106

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Blood Fluke Resistance

The larval stages of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni are disseminated via a replicative cycle in freshwater snails. When people come into contact with contaminated water, the larvae attach to and penetrate the skin. The resulting disease, bilharzia or schistosomiasis, afflicts approximately 67 million people in Africa and South America. Unfortunately, the parasite is showing resistance to one of the available therapeutic drugs, oxamniquine, which means that schistosome control relies on a single drug, praziquantel. Valentim et al. (p. 1385, published online 21 November) analyzed the genetic and molecular basis of resistance to oxamniquine through a combination of genetic linkage mapping, genome sequencing, functional genomics analysis, and x-ray crystallography.

Abstract

Oxamniquine resistance evolved in the human blood fluke (Schistosoma mansoni) in Brazil in the 1970s. We crossed parental parasites differing ~500-fold in drug response, determined drug sensitivity and marker segregation in clonally derived second-generation progeny, and identified a single quantitative trait locus (logarithm of odds = 31) on chromosome 6. A sulfotransferase was identified as the causative gene by using RNA interference knockdown and biochemical complementation assays, and we subsequently demonstrated independent origins of loss-of-function mutations in field-derived and laboratory-selected resistant parasites. These results demonstrate the utility of linkage mapping in a human helminth parasite, while crystallographic analyses of protein-drug interactions illuminate the mode of drug action and provide a framework for rational design of oxamniquine derivatives that kill both S. mansoni and S. haematobium, the two species responsible for >99% of schistosomiasis cases worldwide.

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