Research Article

Crystal Structure of a Soluble Cleaved HIV-1 Envelope Trimer

Science  20 Dec 2013:
Vol. 342, Issue 6165, pp. 1477-1483
DOI: 10.1126/science.1245625

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Knowing the Enemy

Infection of host cells by HIV-1 is mediated by an envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimeric spike on the surface of the virus. Proteins comprising the Env trimer must be cleaved for infectivity, and thus viral fusion involves three Env conformations. The flexibility of the Env trimer has made it a challenge to determine a high-resolution structure, although such a structure is key both for understanding trimer function and for guiding vaccine design. Lyumkis et al. (p. 1484) and Julien et al. (p. 1477) studied soluble cleaved trimers stabilized by specific mutations but that have kept a near-native antigenicity profile. Lyumkis et al. present a high-resolution structure of the trimer in complex with a broadly neutralizing antibody, and Julien et al. present a crystal structure of the trimer in complex with another broadly neutralizing antibody.

Abstract

HIV-1 entry into CD4+ target cells is mediated by cleaved envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers that have been challenging to characterize structurally. Here, we describe the crystal structure at 4.7 angstroms of a soluble, cleaved Env trimer that is stabilized and antigenically near-native (termed the BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140 trimer) in complex with a potent broadly neutralizing antibody, PGT122. The structure shows a prefusion state of gp41, the interaction between the component gp120 and gp41 subunits, and how a close association between the gp120 V1/V2/V3 loops stabilizes the trimer apex around the threefold axis. The complete epitope of PGT122 on the trimer involves gp120 V1, V3, and several surrounding glycans. This trimer structure advances our understanding of how Env functions and is presented to the immune system, and provides a blueprint for structure-based vaccine design.

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