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Break-Induced Replication Repair of Damaged Forks Induces Genomic Duplications in Human Cells

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Science  03 Jan 2014:
Vol. 343, Issue 6166, pp. 88-91
DOI: 10.1126/science.1243211

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DNA Damage Repair

In human cancers, oncogene activation interferes with DNA replication, leading to DNA replication stress and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Costantino et al. (p. 88, published online 5 December) identified two subunits of DNA polymerase delta, POL3 and POL4, as critical for survival of DNA replication stress in human cells. Both subunits were required for break-induced replication (BIR), which is required to repair a specific type of DSB, with both subunits possibly required for processive DNA synthesis in BIR. Tandem head-to-tail duplications and fold-back inversions were seen in replication-stressed cells, similar to those seen in human breast and ovarian cancers, suggesting that BIR is important for repairing damaged forks in cancer cells.

Abstract

In budding yeast, one-ended DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and damaged replication forks are repaired by break-induced replication (BIR), a homologous recombination pathway that requires the Pol32 subunit of DNA polymerase delta. DNA replication stress is prevalent in cancer, but BIR has not been characterized in mammals. In a cyclin E overexpression model of DNA replication stress, POLD3, the human ortholog of POL32, was required for cell cycle progression and processive DNA synthesis. Segmental genomic duplications induced by cyclin E overexpression were also dependent on POLD3, as were BIR-mediated recombination events captured with a specialized DSB repair assay. We propose that BIR repairs damaged replication forks in mammals, accounting for the high frequency of genomic duplications in human cancers.

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