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Pregnenolone Can Protect the Brain from Cannabis Intoxication

Science  03 Jan 2014:
Vol. 343, Issue 6166, pp. 94-98
DOI: 10.1126/science.1243985

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Counteracting Cannabis

What is the role of steroid hormones in vulnerability to addiction? Working with rodents, Vallée et al. (p. 94) found that all major drugs of abuse (morphine, cocaine, alcohol, nicotine) increase neurosteroid levels, with the active ingredient in cannabis (THC) inducing a particularly large increase. THC and other drugs increased levels of pregnenolone, long thought to be an inactive precursor of downstream active steroids. Pregnenolone antagonized most of the known behavioral and somatic effects of THC.

Abstract

Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, and its potential functional effects have been largely uninvestigated. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via activation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling-specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of THC. This negative feedback mediated by pregnenolone reveals a previously unknown paracrine/autocrine loop protecting the brain from CB1 receptor overactivation that could open an unforeseen approach for the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction.

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