Review

Status and Ecological Effects of the World’s Largest Carnivores

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Science  10 Jan 2014:
Vol. 343, Issue 6167, 1241484
DOI: 10.1126/science.1241484

Article Information

vol. 343 no. 6167

PubMed: 
Print ISSN: 
Online ISSN: 
History: 
  • Received for publication June 5, 2013
  • Accepted for publication November 18, 2013

Author Information

  1. William J. Ripple1,*,
  2. James A. Estes2,
  3. Robert L. Beschta1,
  4. Christopher C. Wilmers3,
  5. Euan G. Ritchie4,
  6. Mark Hebblewhite5,
  7. Joel Berger6,
  8. Bodil Elmhagen7,
  9. Mike Letnic8,
  10. Michael P. Nelson1,
  11. Oswald J. Schmitz9,
  12. Douglas W. Smith10,
  13. Arian D. Wallach11,
  14. Aaron J. Wirsing12
  1. 1Trophic Cascades Program, Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.
  2. 2Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA.
  3. 3Center for Integrated Spatial Research, Department of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.
  4. 4Centre for Integrative Ecology and School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia.
  5. 5Wildlife Biology Program, Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana, Missoula MT, 59812, USA, and Department of Biodiversity and Molecular Ecology, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all'Adige (TN), Italy.
  6. 6Department of Organismic Biology and Ecology, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, and Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY 10460, USA.
  7. 7Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
  8. 8School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia.
  9. 9School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
  10. 10Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Post Office Box 168, Mammoth, WY 82190, USA.
  11. 11School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia.
  12. 12School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
  1. *Corresponding author. E-mail: bill.ripple{at}oregonstate.edu

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