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From Parasitism to Mutualism: Unexpected Interactions Between a Cuckoo and Its Host

Science  21 Mar 2014:
Vol. 343, Issue 6177, pp. 1350-1352
DOI: 10.1126/science.1249008

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Predation Favors Parasitism

Parasitism in birds often results in ejection or starvation of the host's nestlings. Consequently, many host bird species have evolved protective behavior such as mobbing and parasite egg rejection. Curiously, some host species show no parasite avoidance behaviors; for example, the crow Corvus corone corone tolerates cuckoo chicks among its own brood. In a long-term study, Canestrari et al. (p. 1350) found that crow nests containing a cuckoo chick had lower rates of predation because the parasite's chicks secrete a noxious repellent substance. Overall, in years of high predation pressure, the presence of cuckoos improves the crow's breeding success, but when there are fewer predators around, parasitism reduces crow fitness.

Abstract

Avian brood parasites lay eggs in the nests of other birds, which raise the unrelated chicks and typically suffer partial or complete loss of their own brood. However, carrion crows Corvus corone corone can benefit from parasitism by the great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius. Parasitized nests have lower rates of predation-induced failure due to production of a repellent secretion by cuckoo chicks, but among nests that are successful, those with cuckoo chicks fledge fewer crows. The outcome of these counterbalancing effects fluctuates between parasitism and mutualism each season, depending on the intensity of predation pressure.

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