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Nucleoside diphosphate kinases fuel dynamin superfamily proteins with GTP for membrane remodeling

Science  27 Jun 2014:
Vol. 344, Issue 6191, pp. 1510-1515
DOI: 10.1126/science.1253768

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Supplying power: Right time, right place

Cell membranes are very flexible and easily molded to shape; however, to physically pinch off a membrane vesicle from a membrane tube still requires power. A type of molecular machine known as dynamin is involved in this sort of membrane remodeling. Dynamins use guanosine triphosphate (GTP) rather than the more commonly used cellular energy source adenosine triphosphate to work. Boissan et al. now show that two separate dynamins found in the cytoplasm or the mitochondria both use the same sort of enzyme—nucleoside diphosphate kinases—to provide GTP at just the right time and the right place to power membrane fission.

Science, this issue p. 1510

Abstract

Dynamin superfamily molecular motors use guanosine triphosphate (GTP) as a source of energy for membrane-remodeling events. We found that knockdown of nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) NM23-H1/H2, which produce GTP through adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–driven conversion of guanosine diphosphate (GDP), inhibited dynamin-mediated endocytosis. NM23-H1/H2 localized at clathrin-coated pits and interacted with the proline-rich domain of dynamin. In vitro, NM23-H1/H2 were recruited to dynamin-induced tubules, stimulated GTP-loading on dynamin, and triggered fission in the presence of ATP and GDP. NM23-H4, a mitochondria-specific NDPK, colocalized with mitochondrial dynamin-like OPA1 involved in mitochondria inner membrane fusion and increased GTP-loading on OPA1. Like OPA1 loss of function, silencing of NM23-H4 but not NM23-H1/H2 resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation, reflecting fusion defects. Thus, NDPKs interact with and provide GTP to dynamins, allowing these motor proteins to work with high thermodynamic efficiency.

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