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Thomas Barnett, a U.S. military geostrategist, has argued that we have leviathan armies that quickly win wars, only to lose the peace. To change that outcome, stability must be established by rebuilding the infrastructure, institutions, and economy of a war-torn nation. An outstanding example of science applied to nation rebuilding is the hyperspectral survey of Afghanistan by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2007. This survey quantified 24 world-class mineral deposits (including iron, cobalt, gold, copper, and rare earth elements), positioning Afghanistan to become a major supplier of minerals (see the News story on p. 725), most of which are in demand for the manufacture of cell phones, computers, and renewable energy technologies.