Research Article

Varying planetary heat sink led to global-warming slowdown and acceleration

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Science  22 Aug 2014:
Vol. 345, Issue 6199, pp. 897-903
DOI: 10.1126/science.1254937

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  1. Fig. 1 Integrated OHC.

    Integrated from the surface to different indicated depths in the global ocean (A), the Atlantic (B), the Pacific (C), the Southern Ocean (D), and the Indian Ocean (E). Shown is the 12-month running mean deviation from the climatological mean (1970 to 2012) for each layer, so attention should not be focused on the absolute distance between the curves but should be on their relative changes in time. Color lines show the OHC in the left scale, in units of 1023 J. The black line shows the mean SST up to 2013. (Insets) The division of the globe into the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Indian Ocean, and the Southern Ocean. Although shown in the figure, data in the earlier decades were not as reliable (see Data and Materials and Methods); the discussion in the text is focused on the better-observed regions and periods.

  2. Fig. 2 In situ data coverage in 5°-by-5° grid as a percentage of full coverage.

    Shown as background blue color shades at each depth as indicated by the axis on the left. Integrated OHC from the surface to each depth (lines with red to yellow colors) for global (A), Atlantic (B), and Pacific (C) oceans are superimposed, with magnitude scale on the right axis. No climatology is removed; all values refer to difference from their 2000 values.

  3. Fig. 3 ORAS4 reanalysis.

    (A to E) Same as Fig. 1 except with use of ORAS4 data.

  4. Fig. 4 EOF of the global oceans.

    The first (left column) and second (right column) EOF modes of the OHC in the layers 0 to 300 m (A and B) and 300 to 1500 m (C and D), respectively, in the same unit of 1019 J. (E and F) The PC time series associated with each EOF mode (blue for the upper layer and red for the lower layer). The PCs have been normalized by the standard deviation, which is multiplied to the EOF modes. The percentage of variance explained by each EOF is indicated in each EOF panel. Because the second EOF is small, attention should be focused on the first EOF.

  5. Fig. 5 Contrasting the change in heat content in the Pacific versus the Atlantic.

    (A and B) OHC (for each 5-m layer) in the Atlantic basin zonally averaged over the basin as a function of latitude. (C and D) OHC integrated meridionally (35°S to 65°N) over the Pacific basin as a function of longitude. (A and C) Averaged over the recent 14 years. (B and D) Averaged over the previous 14 years. Not detrended.

  6. Fig. 6 Climate shifts in salinity and OHC.

    North Atlantic subpolar (45° to 65°N) mean salinity (A) and 5-m layer OHC (B), 12-month running mean, as a function of years; not detrended, but the climatology for the period 1950 to 2012 was removed.