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A local macrophage chemokine network sustains protective tissue-resident memory CD4 T cells

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Science  03 Oct 2014:
Vol. 346, Issue 6205, pp. 93-98
DOI: 10.1126/science.1257530

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Resident memory T cells sound the alarm

Immunological memory protects against reinfection. Resident memory T cells (TRM) are long-lived and remain in the tissues where they first encountered a pathogen (see the Perspective by Carbone and Gebhardt). Schenkel et al. and Ariotti et al. found that CD8+ TRM cells act like first responders in the female reproductive tissue or the skin of mice upon antigen reencounter. By secreting inflammatory proteins, TRM cells rapidly activated local immune cells to respond, so much so that they protected against infection with an unrelated pathogen. Iijima and Iwasaki found that CD4+ TRM cells protected mice against reinfection with intravaginal herpes simplex virus 2.

Science, this issue p. 98, p. 101, p. 93; see also p. 40

Abstract

CD8 tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells provide efficient local control of viral infection, but the role of CD4 TRM is less clear. Here, by using parabiotic mice, we show that a preexisting pool of CD4 TRM cells in the genital mucosa was required for full protection from a lethal herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection. Chemokines secreted by a local network of macrophages maintained vaginal CD4 TRM in memory lymphocyte clusters (MLCs), independently of circulating memory T cells. CD4 TRM cells within the MLCs were enriched in clones that expanded in response to HSV-2. Our results highlight the need for vaccine strategies that enable establishment of TRM cells for protection from a sexually transmitted virus and provide insights as to how such a pool might be established.

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