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Differences among species in their ability to adapt to environmental change threaten biodiversity, human health, food security, and natural resource availability. Pathogens, pests, and cancers often quickly evolve resistance to control measures, whereas crops, livestock, wild species, and human beings often do not adapt fast enough to cope with climate change, habitat loss, toxicants, and lifestyle change. To address these challenges, practices based on evolutionary biology can promote sustainable outcomes via strategic manipulation of genetic, developmental, and environmental factors. Successful strategies effectively slow unwanted evolution and reduce fitness in costly species or improve performance of valued organisms by reducing phenotype-environment mismatch or increasing group productivity. Tactics of applied evolutionary biology range broadly, from common policies that promote public health or preserve habitat for threatened species—but are easily overlooked as having an evolutionary rationale, to the engineering of new genomes.
The scope and development of current tactics vary widely. In particular, genetic engineering attracts much attention (and controversy) but now is used mainly for traits under simple genetic control. Human gene therapy, which mainly involves more complex controls, has yet to be applied successfully at large scales. In contrast, other methods to alter complex traits are improving. These include artificial selection for drought- and flood-tolerant crops through bioinformatics and application of “life course” approaches in medicine to reduce human metabolic disorders.
Successful control of unwanted evolution depends on governance initiatives that address challenges arising from both natural and social factors. Principal among these challenges are (i) global transfer of genes and selection agents; (ii) interlinked evolution across traditional sectors of society (environment, food, and health); and (iii) conflicts between individual and group incentives that threaten regulation of antibiotic use and crop refuges. Evolutionarily informed practices are a newer prospect in some fields and require more systematic research, as well as ethical consideration—for example, in attempts to protect wild species through assisted migration, in the choice of source populations for restoration, or in genetic engineering.
A more unified platform will better convey the value of evolutionary methods to the public, scientists, and decision-makers. For researchers and practitioners, applications may be expanded to other disciplines, such as in the transfer of refuge strategies that slow resistance evolution in agriculture to slow unwanted evolution elsewhere (for example, cancer resistance or harvest-induced evolution). For policy-makers, adoption of practices that minimize unwanted evolution and reduce phenotype-environment mismatch in valued species is likely essential to achieve the forthcoming Sustainable Development Goals and the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
Exploiting evolution for humanity's sake
Using artificial selection, humans have tapped into evolutionary processes for thousands of years. The results of this process we see all around us, from the dogs we share our homes with to the food we put on our table. Carroll et al. review the ways that a more intentional harnessing of evolution may be able to help us meet some of Earth's most pressing challenges, including disease, climate change, and food security.
Science, this issue 10.1126/science.1245993
Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens, and pests that evolve too quickly and the second, from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these global challenges that threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity. This Review highlights both progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations across the life sciences that either target the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the mismatch between organisms and human-altered environments. Increased development and application of these underused tools will be vital in meeting current and future targets for sustainable development.