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The structure of interfacial water on gold electrodes studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

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Science  14 Nov 2014:
Vol. 346, Issue 6211, pp. 831-834
DOI: 10.1126/science.1259437

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Abstract

The molecular structure of the electrical double layer determines the chemistry in all electrochemical processes. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), we probed the structure of water near gold electrodes and its bias dependence. Electron yield XAS detected at the gold electrode revealed that the interfacial water molecules have a different structure from those in the bulk. First principles calculations revealed that ~50% of the molecules lie flat on the surface with saturated hydrogen bonds and another substantial fraction with broken hydrogen bonds that do not contribute to the XAS spectrum because their core-excited states are delocalized by coupling with the gold substrate. At negative bias, the population of flat-lying molecules with broken hydrogen bonds increases, producing a spectrum similar to that of bulk water.

Dissecting the electrical double layer

The structure of water within a nanometer of an electrode surface is known as the electrical double layer. This layer creates a strong electrical field that can affect electrochemical reactions. Velasco-Velez et al. explored the structure of the electrical double layer at a bare gold electrode. With no applied potential and at positive potentials, the layer is highly structured (resembling ice) with few dangling hydrogen bonds. However, at negative potentials, the layer was more like bulk water, and half of the water molecules lie flat on the surface.

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