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Coherent changes of southeastern equatorial and northern African rainfall during the last deglaciation

Science  05 Dec 2014:
Vol. 346, Issue 6214, pp. 1223-1227
DOI: 10.1126/science.1259531

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Abstract

During the last deglaciation, wetter conditions developed abruptly ~14,700 years ago in southeastern equatorial and northern Africa and continued into the Holocene. Explaining the abrupt onset and hemispheric coherence of this early African Humid Period is challenging due to opposing seasonal insolation patterns. In this work, we use a transient simulation with a climate model that provides a mechanistic understanding of deglacial tropical African precipitation changes. Our results show that meltwater-induced reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) during the early deglaciation suppressed precipitation in both regions. Once the AMOC reestablished, wetter conditions developed north of the equator in response to high summer insolation and increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, whereas wetter conditions south of the equator were a response primarily to the GHG increase.

Greenhouse gases drove African rainfall

Much of equatorial Africa suddenly became much wetter ∼14,700 years ago, ushering in an “African Humid Period” that continued well into the Holocene. Why? Otto-Bliesner et al. use a climate model to show that a reduction in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) at the beginning of the last deglaciation caused a reduction in precipitation in northern and southeastern equatorial Africa. When the AMOC became stronger again, wetter conditions developed in response to a combination of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and strong summer sun. As atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase, these results may have implications for the future of African hydroclimate, water resources, and agriculture.

Science, this issue p. 1223

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