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Alternative lengthening of telomeres renders cancer cells hypersensitive to ATR inhibitors

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Science  16 Jan 2015:
Vol. 347, Issue 6219, pp. 273-277
DOI: 10.1126/science.1257216

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Cancer's alternative means to an end

To stay alive and proliferating, tumor cells must maintain their telomeres: the DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes. The majority accomplish this by activating the enzyme telomerase. However, certain tumor types favor a different mechanism called alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), which involves DNA recombination. Flynn et al. delineated the molecular events that occur at the telomeres of ALT-proficient tumor cells by studying the function of a protein that is altered by mutation in these tumors. The analysis revealed a specific protein kinase that is essential for ALT, which could in principle be targeted to halt tumor growth.

Science, this issue p. 273

Abstract

Cancer cells rely on telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to overcome replicative mortality. ALT is mediated by recombination and is prevalent in a subset of human cancers, yet whether it can be exploited therapeutically remains unknown. Loss of the chromatin-remodeling protein ATRX associates with ALT in cancers. Here, we show that ATRX loss compromises cell-cycle regulation of the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA and leads to persistent association of replication protein A (RPA) with telomeres after DNA replication, creating a recombinogenic nucleoprotein structure. Inhibition of the protein kinase ATR, a critical regulator of recombination recruited by RPA, disrupts ALT and triggers chromosome fragmentation and apoptosis in ALT cells. The cell death induced by ATR inhibitors is highly selective for cancer cells that rely on ALT, suggesting that such inhibitors may be useful for treatment of ALT-positive cancers.

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