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Direct observation of hierarchical protein dynamics

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Science  01 May 2015:
Vol. 348, Issue 6234, pp. 578-581
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa6111

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A hierarchy of protein motions

Functioning proteins are not static but explore complex conformational energy landscapes. Lewandowski et al. used multinuclear solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to measure protein motion over a broad range of temperatures and time scales. Above 160 K there was a strong coupling between solvent and protein motion. The hierarchy of motions as the temperature increased revealed the dynamic modes that relate solvent, sidechain, and backbone motion.

Science, this issue p. 578

Abstract

One of the fundamental challenges of physical biology is to understand the relationship between protein dynamics and function. At physiological temperatures, functional motions arise from the complex interplay of thermal motions of proteins and their environments. Here, we determine the hierarchy in the protein conformational energy landscape that underlies these motions, based on a series of temperature-dependent magic-angle spinning multinuclear nuclear-magnetic-resonance relaxation measurements in a hydrated nanocrystalline protein. The results support strong coupling between protein and solvent dynamics above 160 kelvin, with fast solvent motions, slow protein side-chain motions, and fast protein backbone motions being activated consecutively. Low activation energy, small-amplitude local motions dominate at low temperatures, with larger-amplitude, anisotropic, and functionally relevant motions involving entire peptide units becoming dominant at temperatures above 220 kelvin.

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