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Whole-body endothermy in a mesopelagic fish, the opah, Lampris guttatus

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Science  15 May 2015:
Vol. 348, Issue 6236, pp. 786-789
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa8902

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  1. Fig. 1 Body temperature in the opah, L. guttatus.

    (A) In situ internal temperature profile (measurements taken ~4 to 5 cm below the skin) for a 98.0-cm fork length (40.0 kg) opah, with an ambient reference temperature of 10.5°C. (B) In vivo pectoral muscle temperature for a 96.4-cm (39.0 kg) opah swimming at depth.

  2. Fig. 2 Anatomy and vasculature of the opah gill.

    (A) Opah with enlarged fixed gill arch (left) and examples of vascular casts of the first gill arch (blue casting material only; center) and fourth arch (blue and red casting material; right). (B) Enlarged view of box “B” in (A) showing blood vessels of the rete mirabile surrounded by adipose tissue within the gill arch. (C) Enlarged view of box “C” in (A) showing the convoluted alternating afferent (blue, deoxygenated) and efferent (red, oxygenated) filament arteries forming the rete mirabile. (D) Magnified image of box in (B) showing a cross section through the rete with two rows of blood vessels (one associated with each gill hemibranch) containing alternating afferent and efferent filament arteries. (E) Gill filament extracted from box “E” in (A) showing the tight coupling of the afferent filament artery (blue, delivering deoxygenated blood to the gas-exchanging lamellae) with the efferent filament artery (red, returning with oxygenated blood). A, adipose tissue; ABA, afferent branchial artery; AFA, afferent filament artery; EBA, efferent branchial artery; EFA, efferent filament artery; GA, gill arch; GF, gill filaments.

  3. Fig. 3

    Depth distribution of an opah in comparison with that of the regionally endothermic albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, as determined through archival tags. (Left) Opah. (Right) Albacore tuna. The percentage of time each species spent above 50 m (dotted gray line indicates the estimated mean depth of the bottom of the warm mixed surface layer) is shown for both daylight and nighttime hours. [Data for albacore tuna are from (26).]