After the Iran deal: Multinational enrichment

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Science  19 Jun 2015:
Vol. 348, Issue 6241, pp. 1320-1322
DOI: 10.1126/science.aac5989

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In April 2015, Iran and the E3+3 nations (France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, plus China, Russia, and the United States) negotiated a framework for a “comprehensive solution that will ensure the exclusively peaceful nature of the Iranian nuclear program” (1, 2). The final settlement, expected by July 2015 or soon after, would constrain Iran's activities for various extended periods in return for the lifting of sanctions and affirm Iran's right to pursue its nuclear program free of the limits on its uranium enrichment capacity a decade or more from now. What happens when these restrictions begin to phase out? We outline one approach to limit the long-term risk by using the next 10 years to convert Iran's national enrichment plant into a multinational one, possibly including as partners some of Iran's neighbors and one or more of the E3+3 countries.