A Chlamydia vaccine on the horizon

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Science  19 Jun 2015:
Vol. 348, Issue 6241, pp. 1322-1323
DOI: 10.1126/science.aac6528

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Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common reported sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the United States, with more than 1.4 million cases of infection reported to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012 (1). Worldwide, it is likely the most common infectious cause of infertility in women. An estimated 106 million cases of C. trachomatis occur globally among both women and men each year, so the worldwide burden of disease is substantial. Current public health efforts to prevent sexually transmitted disease caused by C. trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae emphasize prevention, but screening and treatment programs in medium- and low-income countries are rarely implemented because of financial and logistical difficulties. The findings reported by Stary et al. on page 1331 of this issue (2) constitute a major step forward in understanding C. trachomatis immunobiology and could translate into a vaccine that galvanizes mucosal T cells against this pathogen.