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Protective efficacy of adenovirus/protein vaccines against SIV challenges in rhesus monkeys

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Science  17 Jul 2015:
Vol. 349, Issue 6245, pp. 320-324
DOI: 10.1126/science.aab3886

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To defeat SIV, add a protein boost

Despite 30 years of effort, no HIV-1 vaccine exists. Barouch et al. evaluated one promising strategy in rhesus macaques, a preclinical model commonly used to test potential HIV-1 vaccine candidates. They immunized monkeys with adenovirus-36 vectors engineered to express SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) genes and then boosted them with a recombinant gp120 envelope glycoprotein (Env) from SIV. This regimen afforded greater protection than a strategy that instead used a viral vector–based boost. A parallel trial using a SHIV (simian/human immunodeficiency virus)–based vaccine and challenge model produced similar results. Whether this particular approach will be equally successful in humans remains to be tested.

Science, this issue p. 320

Abstract

Preclinical studies of viral vector–based HIV-1 vaccine candidates have previously shown partial protection against neutralization-resistant virus challenges in rhesus monkeys. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector priming followed by purified envelope (Env) glycoprotein boosting. Rhesus monkeys primed with Ad26 vectors expressing SIVsmE543 Env, Gag, and Pol and boosted with AS01B-adjuvanted SIVmac32H Env gp140 demonstrated complete protection in 50% of vaccinated animals against a series of repeated, heterologous, intrarectal SIVmac251 challenges that infected all controls. Protective efficacy correlated with the functionality of Env-specific antibody responses. Comparable protection was also observed with a similar Ad/Env vaccine against repeated, heterologous, intrarectal SHIV-SF162P3 challenges. These data demonstrate robust protection by Ad/Env vaccines against acquisition of neutralization-resistant virus challenges in rhesus monkeys.

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