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Phosphatidylserine transport by ORP/Osh proteins is driven by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate

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Science  24 Jul 2015:
Vol. 349, Issue 6246, pp. 432-436
DOI: 10.1126/science.aab1346

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Membrane contact sites promote lipid exchange

Most membrane lipids are manufactured in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Different organelles and the plasma membrane (PM) have distinct phospholipid compositions. Chung et al., working in mammalian cells, and Moser von Filseck et al., working in yeast, both describe how a family of proteins is important in maintaining the balance of lipids within the cell. These special proteins accumulate at and tether contact sites between the ER and the PM and promote the exchange of specific phospholipids, which helps to maintain the PM's distinct identity.

Science, this issue pp. 428 and 432

Abstract

In eukaryotic cells, phosphatidylserine (PS) is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but is highly enriched in the plasma membrane (PM), where it contributes negative charge and to specific recruitment of signaling proteins. This distribution relies on transport mechanisms whose nature remains elusive. Here, we found that the PS transporter Osh6p extracted phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and exchanged PS for PI4P between two membranes. We solved the crystal structure of Osh6p:PI4P complex and demonstrated that the transport of PS by Osh6p depends on PI4P recognition in vivo. Finally, we showed that the PI4P-phosphatase Sac1p, by maintaining a PI4P gradient at the ER/PM interface, drove PS transport. Thus, PS transport by oxysterol-binding protein–related protein (ORP)/oxysterol-binding homology (Osh) proteins is fueled by PI4P metabolism through PS/PI4P exchange cycles.

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