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Membrane potential modulates plasma membrane phospholipid dynamics and K-Ras signaling

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Science  21 Aug 2015:
Vol. 349, Issue 6250, pp. 873-876
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa5619

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Membrane potential regulates growth

Changes in electrical potential across the plasma membrane can affect cell growth. Zhou et al. discovered that membrane potential influenced the organization of phospholipids in the membrane of cultured mammalian cells and neurons in intact flies (see the Perspective by Accardi). This in turn regulated localization and activity of the small guanine nucleotide binding protein K-Ras, an important regulator of cell proliferation. The cell membrane may thus function analogously to a field-effect transistor by adjusting the strength of mitogenic signaling.

Science, this issue p. 873; see also p. 789

Abstract

Plasma membrane depolarization can trigger cell proliferation, but how membrane potential influences mitogenic signaling is uncertain. Here, we show that plasma membrane depolarization induces nanoscale reorganization of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate but not other anionic phospholipids. K-Ras, which is targeted to the plasma membrane by electrostatic interactions with phosphatidylserine, in turn undergoes enhanced nanoclustering. Depolarization-induced changes in phosphatidylserine and K-Ras plasma membrane organization occur in fibroblasts, excitable neuroblastoma cells, and Drosophila neurons in vivo and robustly amplify K-Ras–dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Conversely, plasma membrane repolarization disrupts K-Ras nanoclustering and inhibits MAPK signaling. By responding to voltage-induced changes in phosphatidylserine spatiotemporal dynamics, K-Ras nanoclusters set up the plasma membrane as a biological field-effect transistor, allowing membrane potential to control the gain in mitogenic signaling circuits.

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