In DepthGeochemistry

How buried water makes diamonds and oil

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Science  06 Nov 2015:
Vol. 350, Issue 6261, pp. 613-614
DOI: 10.1126/science.350.6261.613

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Summary

Under high pressures, water can react with surrounding rock to make diamonds and oil. These are just two consequences of a new picture of water's versatile chemistry in the mantle. The Deep Earth Water model is showing that, under extreme pressures down to 200 kilometers, water can dissolve many ions and host unexpected new reactions. It is replacing a geochemical framework, published in 1981, which made predictions for water-rock interactions, but only down to 15 kilometers. The idea that oil can be made from water and rock in the mantle is controversial, because it has long been assumed that oil arises through the compaction and burial of organic matter.