Efficient and stable large-area perovskite solar cells with inorganic charge extraction layers

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Science  20 Nov 2015:
Vol. 350, Issue 6263, pp. 944-948
DOI: 10.1126/science.aad1015

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Perovskites go large

Solar cells made of planar organic-inorganic perovskites now have reported efficiencies exceeding 20%. However, these values have been determined from small illuminated areas. Chen et al. used highly doped inorganic charge extraction layers to make solar cells on the 1 cm2 scale (see the Perspective by Sessolo and Bolink). The layers helped to protect the active layer from degradation by air. The cells achieved governmentlab–certified efficiencies of >15%. Furthermore, 90% of the efficiency was maintained after 1000 hours of operation.

Science, this issue p. 944; see also p. 917


The recent dramatic rise in power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has triggered intense research worldwide. However, high PCE values have often been reached with poor stability at an illuminated area of typically less than 0.1 square centimeter. We used heavily doped inorganic charge extraction layers in planar PSCs to achieve very rapid carrier extraction, even with 10- to 20-nanometer-thick layers, avoiding pinholes and eliminating local structural defects over large areas. The robust inorganic nature of the layers allowed for the fabrication of PSCs with an aperture area >1 square centimeter that have a PCE >15%, as certified by an accredited photovoltaic calibration laboratory. Hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics was eliminated; the PSCs were stable, with >90% of the initial PCE remaining after 1000 hours of light soaking.

  • Corresponding author. E-mail: michael.graetzel{at} (M.G.); han.liyuan{at} (L.H.)

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