Could microbial therapy boost cancer immunotherapy?

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Science  27 Nov 2015:
Vol. 350, Issue 6264, pp. 1031-1032
DOI: 10.1126/science.aad7706

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Immunotherapies known as checkpoint blockades are rapidly changing standard treatment and outcomes for patients with advanced malignancies, as they lead to long-term disease control in a subset of patients (1). On pages 1084 and 1079 of this issue, Sivan et al. (2) and Vétizou et al. (3), respectively, illustrate an important role for the gut microbiome in modulating the efficacy of this treatment.