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MTAP deletion confers enhanced dependency on the PRMT5 arginine methyltransferase in cancer cells

Science  11 Mar 2016:
Vol. 351, Issue 6278, pp. 1214-1218
DOI: 10.1126/science.aad5214

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Tumors put in a vulnerable position

Cancer cells often display alterations in metabolism that help fuel their growth. Such metabolic “rewiring” may also work against the cancer cells, however, by creating new vulnerabilities that can be exploited therapeutically. A variety of human tumors show changes in methionine metabolism caused by loss of the gene coding for 5-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP). Mavrakis et al. and Kryukov et al. found that the loss of MTAP renders cancer cell lines sensitive to growth inhibition by compounds that suppress the activity of a specific arginine methyltransferase called PRMT5. Conceivably, drugs that inhibit PRMT5 activity could be developed into a tailored therapy for MTAP-deficient tumors.

Science, this issue pp. 1208 and 1214

Abstract

The discovery of cancer dependencies has the potential to inform therapeutic strategies and to identify putative drug targets. Integrating data from comprehensive genomic profiling of cancer cell lines and from functional characterization of cancer cell dependencies, we discovered that loss of the enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) confers a selective dependence on protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) and its binding partner WDR77. MTAP is frequently lost due to its proximity to the commonly deleted tumor suppressor gene, CDKN2A. We observed increased intracellular concentrations of methylthioadenosine (MTA, the metabolite cleaved by MTAP) in cells harboring MTAP deletions. Furthermore, MTA specifically inhibited PRMT5 enzymatic activity. Administration of either MTA or a small-molecule PRMT5 inhibitor showed a modest preferential impairment of cell viability for MTAP-null cancer cell lines compared with isogenic MTAP-expressing counterparts. Together, our findings reveal PRMT5 as a potential vulnerability across multiple cancer lineages augmented by a common “passenger” genomic alteration.

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