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RNA splicing is a primary link between genetic variation and disease

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Science  29 Apr 2016:
Vol. 352, Issue 6285, pp. 600-604
DOI: 10.1126/science.aad9417

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RNA splicing links genetics to disease

Many genetic variants associated with disease have no apparent effect on any specific protein coding sequence. Li et al. systematically analyzed the effects of DNA variants on the main steps of gene regulation, from the chromatin state through protein function. One-third of expression quantitative train loci (QTLs) are mediated through transcriptional processes, not chromatin. Splice QTLs and expression QTLs are about comparable in their complex disease risk. Posttranscriptional mechanisms therefore play a large role in translating genotype to phenotype.

Science, this issue p. 600

Abstract

Noncoding variants play a central role in the genetics of complex traits, but we still lack a full understanding of the molecular pathways through which they act. We quantified the contribution of cis-acting genetic effects at all major stages of gene regulation from chromatin to proteins, in Yoruba lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). About ~65% of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) have primary effects on chromatin, whereas the remaining eQTLs are enriched in transcribed regions. Using a novel method, we also detected 2893 splicing QTLs, most of which have little or no effect on gene-level expression. These splicing QTLs are major contributors to complex traits, roughly on a par with variants that affect gene expression levels. Our study provides a comprehensive view of the mechanisms linking genetic variation to variation in human gene regulation.

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