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Ubiquitous signatures of nematic quantum criticality in optimally doped Fe-based superconductors

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Science  20 May 2016:
Vol. 352, Issue 6288, pp. 958-962
DOI: 10.1126/science.aab0103

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Discerning the nematic connection

The phase diagram of any given family of iron-based superconductors is complicated: Superconductivity competes with antiferromagnetism, with a structural transition often thrown in for good measure. Transport experiments have shown that in one of these families, Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2, a rotational electronic asymmetry, dubbed nematicity, drives the structural transition. Kuo et al. detected nematic fluctuations in five Fe-based superconductor families in the vicinity of optimal chemical doping: the doping that maximizes the superconducting transition temperature. Thus, nematicity may play a role in the mechanism of superconductivity in these compounds.

Science, this issue p. 958

Abstract

A key actor in the conventional theory of superconductivity is the induced interaction between electrons mediated by the exchange of virtual collective fluctuations (phonons in the case of conventional s-wave superconductors). Other collective modes that can play the same role, especially spin fluctuations, have been widely discussed in the context of high-temperature and heavy Fermion superconductors. The strength of such collective fluctuations is measured by the associated susceptibility. Here we use differential elastoresistance measurements from five optimally doped iron-based superconductors to show that divergent nematic susceptibility appears to be a generic feature in the optimal doping regime of these materials. This observation motivates consideration of the effects of nematic fluctuations on the superconducting pairing interaction in this family of compounds and possibly beyond.

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