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Neuronal subtypes and diversity revealed by single-nucleus RNA sequencing of the human brain

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Science  24 Jun 2016:
Vol. 352, Issue 6293, pp. 1586-1590
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf1204

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Single-nucleus gene expression

Identifying the genes expressed at the level of a single cell nucleus can better help us understand the human brain. Blue et al. developed a single-nuclei sequencing technique, which they applied to cells in classically defined Brodmann areas from a postmortem brain. Clustering of gene expression showed concordance with the area of origin and defining 16 neuronal subtypes. Both excitatory and inhibitory neuronal subtypes show regional variations that define distinct cortical areas and exhibit how gene expression clusters may distinguish between distinct cortical areas. This method opens the door to widespread sampling of the genes expressed in a diseased brain and other tissues of interest.

Science, this issue p. 1586

Abstract

The human brain has enormously complex cellular diversity and connectivities fundamental to our neural functions, yet difficulties in interrogating individual neurons has impeded understanding of the underlying transcriptional landscape. We developed a scalable approach to sequence and quantify RNA molecules in isolated neuronal nuclei from a postmortem brain, generating 3227 sets of single-neuron data from six distinct regions of the cerebral cortex. Using an iterative clustering and classification approach, we identified 16 neuronal subtypes that were further annotated on the basis of known markers and cortical cytoarchitecture. These data demonstrate a robust and scalable method for identifying and categorizing single nuclear transcriptomes, revealing shared genes sufficient to distinguish previously unknown and orthologous neuronal subtypes as well as regional identity and transcriptomic heterogeneity within the human brain.

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