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Mycorrhizal association as a primary control of the CO2 fertilization effect

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Science  01 Jul 2016:
Vol. 353, Issue 6294, pp. 72-74
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf4610

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Fungi relieve nitrogen limitation

Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 stimulate plant growth; an effect that could reduce the pace of anthropogenic climate change. But plants also need nitrogen for growth. So far, experimental nitrogen addition has had equivocal effects on the magnitude of CO2 fertilization. Terrer et al. explain that the impact of nitrogen on plant growth depends on the relationship between nitrogen availability and symbioses with mycorrhizal soil fungi. Only plants with ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with their roots can overcome nitrogen limitation.

Science, this issue p. 72

Abstract

Plants buffer increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations through enhanced growth, but the question whether nitrogen availability constrains the magnitude of this ecosystem service remains unresolved. Synthesizing experiments from around the world, we show that CO2 fertilization is best explained by a simple interaction between nitrogen availability and mycorrhizal association. Plant species that associate with ectomycorrhizal fungi show a strong biomass increase (30 ± 3%, P < 0.001) in response to elevated CO2 regardless of nitrogen availability, whereas low nitrogen availability limits CO2 fertilization (0 ± 5%, P = 0.946) in plants that associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The incorporation of mycorrhizae in global carbon cycle models is feasible, and crucial if we are to accurately project ecosystem responses and feedbacks to climate change.

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