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Continental patterns of submarine groundwater discharge reveal coastal vulnerabilities

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Science  12 Aug 2016:
Vol. 353, Issue 6300, pp. 705-707
DOI: 10.1126/science.aag1058

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Water dissolving and water removing

Not all groundwater ends up flowing into rivers. Some is discharged directly into the ocean along the coast. Although much lower in volume than water transported by rivers, such submarine groundwater discharge can be a hidden source of dissolved ions, nutrients, or contaminants from human activities. Sawyer et al. performed a high-resolution continental-scale analysis of fresh groundwater discharge along the coastline of the United States. In total, more than one-fifth of coastal waters are vulnerable to groundwater-borne contamination.

Science, this issue p. 705

Abstract

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) delivers water and dissolved chemicals from continents to oceans, and its spatial distribution affects coastal water quality. Unlike rivers, SGD is broadly distributed and relatively difficult to measure, especially at continental scales. We present spatially resolved estimates of fresh (land-derived) SGD for the contiguous United States based on historical climate records and high-resolution hydrographic data. Climate controls regional patterns in fresh SGD, while coastal drainage geometry imparts strong local variability. Because the recharge zones that contribute fresh SGD are densely populated, the quality and quantity of fresh SGD are both vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance. Our analysis unveils hot spots for contaminant discharge to marine waters and saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers.

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