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Enantioselective cyanation of benzylic C–H bonds via copper-catalyzed radical relay

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Science  02 Sep 2016:
Vol. 353, Issue 6303, pp. 1014-1018
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7783

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Abstract

Direct methods for stereoselective functionalization of sp3-hybridized carbon–hydrogen [C(sp3)–H] bonds in complex organic molecules could facilitate much more efficient preparation of therapeutics and agrochemicals. Here, we report a copper-catalyzed radical relay pathway for enantioselective conversion of benzylic C–H bonds into benzylic nitriles. Hydrogen-atom abstraction affords an achiral benzylic radical that undergoes asymmetric C(sp3)–CN bond formation upon reaction with a chiral copper catalyst. The reactions proceed efficiently at room temperature with the benzylic substrate as limiting reagent, exhibit broad substrate scope with high enantioselectivity (typically 90 to 99% enantiomeric excess), and afford products that are key precursors to important bioactive molecules. Mechanistic studies provide evidence for diffusible organic radicals and highlight the difference between these reactions and C–H oxidations mediated by enzymes and other catalysts that operate via radical rebound pathways.

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