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Spiral density waves in a young protoplanetary disk

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Science  30 Sep 2016:
Vol. 353, Issue 6307, pp. 1519-1521
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8296
  • Fig. 1 Thermal dust emission from the protoplanetary disk surrounding Elias 2-27.

    The disk was imaged at a wavelength of 1.3 mm, with ALMA reaching an angular resolution of 0.26″ by 0.22″ (indicated by the ellipse in the bottom left corner), which corresponds to 36 by 31 AU at the distance of the star. The field-of-view center (at 0, 0) corresponds to the disk emission peak located at right ascension (J2000) = 16 hours 26 min 45.024 s, declination (J2000) = –24 degrees 23 min 08.250 s, and coincidental with the position of the star Elias 2-27. (A) 1.3-mm dust continuum image from the Elias 2-27 protoplanetary disk over a 4″ by 4″ area. The color scale represents flux density measured in units of Jansky per beam (1 Jy = 10−26 W m−2 Hz−1). (B) Increased contrast image from processing the original ALMA observations shown in (A) with an unsharp masking filter (17).

  • Fig. 2 Polar projection of disk emission and measured contrast over the spirals in the Elias 2-27 protoplanetary disk.

    (A) Projection onto polar coordinates (polar angle θ versus deprojected radial distance to the central star R) of the dust continuum observations from the Elias 2-27 disk. The emission has been scaled by R2 in order to aid visualization, and the polar angle is defined as θ = 0° (north) increasing toward east. Curves correspond to the best-fit model spirals for the NW and SE arms (dashed lines) and their constraint at the 3σ level (solid lines). (B) Surface brightness contrast of the continuum emission along each spiral arm, defined as the ratio between the peak of emission and the background surface brightness (17), which is computed at increasing radial distance from the star.

  • Fig. 3 Model of symmetric spirals and dark ring for the Elias 2-27 protoplanetary disk.

    The local maxima (crosses) and local minima (circles) in the continuum emission of Elias 2-27 are indicated. The maxima trace the NW and SE spirals, and the minima trace a ring. A model with symmetric spirals that shares the same geometry (inclination and position angle) with the inner dark ring was able to reproduce the location of the local maxima and minima of emission, as illustrated by the best-fit model (solid curve) and 3σ constraints (shaded regions). The blue star denotes the position of Elias 2-27. To illustrate the location of these features in the image, we overlaid these results over the unsharp masked image from Fig. 1B; however, this image was not used for the calculations.

Supplementary Materials

  • Spiral density waves in a young protoplanetary disk

    Laura M. Pérez, John M. Carpenter, Sean M. Andrews, Luca Ricci, Andrea Isella, Hendrik Linz, Anneila I. Sargent, David J. Wilner, Thomas Henning, Adam T. Deller, Claire J. Chandler, Cornelis P. Dullemond, Joseph Lazio, Karl M. Menten, Stuartt A. Corder, Shaye Storm, Leonardo Testi, Marco Tazzari, Woojin Kwon, Nuria Calvet, Jane S. Greaves, Robert J. Harris, Lee G. Mundy

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Figs. S1 to S8
    • References

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