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Quantum dot–induced phase stabilization of α-CsPbI3 perovskite for high-efficiency photovoltaics

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Science  07 Oct 2016:
Vol. 354, Issue 6308, pp. 92-95
DOI: 10.1126/science.aag2700

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Maintaining a stable phase

For solar cell applications, all-inorganic perovskite phases could be more stable than those containing organic cations. But the band gaps of the former, which determine the electrical conductivity of these materials, are not well matched to the solar spectrum. The cubic structure of CsPbI3 is an exception, but it is stable in bulk only at high temperatures. Swarnkar et al. show that surfactant-coated α-CsPbI3 quantum dots are stable at ambient conditions and have tunable band gaps in the visible range. Thin films of these materials can be made by spin coating with an antisolvent technique to minimize surfactant loss. When used in solar cells, these films have efficiencies exceeding 10%, making them promising for light harvesting or for LEDs.

Science, this issue p. 92

Abstract

We show nanoscale phase stabilization of CsPbI3 quantum dots (QDs) to low temperatures that can be used as the active component of efficient optoelectronic devices. CsPbI3 is an all-inorganic analog to the hybrid organic cation halide perovskites, but the cubic phase of bulk CsPbI3 (α-CsPbI3)—the variant with desirable band gap—is only stable at high temperatures. We describe the formation of α-CsPbI3 QD films that are phase-stable for months in ambient air. The films exhibit long-range electronic transport and were used to fabricate colloidal perovskite QD photovoltaic cells with an open-circuit voltage of 1.23 volts and efficiency of 10.77%. These devices also function as light-emitting diodes with low turn-on voltage and tunable emission.

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