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Senescent intimal foam cells are deleterious at all stages of atherosclerosis

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Science  28 Oct 2016:
Vol. 354, Issue 6311, pp. 472-477
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6659

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Wreaking havoc while (growth-)arrested

Cells enter a state of senescence in response to certain stresses. Studying mouse models, Childs et al. examined the role of senescent lipid-loaded macrophages (so-called “foam cells”) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. At early stages of atherosclerosis, senescent foam cells promoted the expression of inflammatory cytokines. At later stages, they promoted the expression of matrix metalloproteases implicated in the rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, which can lead to blood clots. Experimental removal of the senescent cells had beneficial effects at both stages of the disease.

Science, this issue p. 472

Abstract

Advanced atherosclerotic lesions contain senescent cells, but the role of these cells in atherogenesis remains unclear. Using transgenic and pharmacological approaches to eliminate senescent cells in atherosclerosis-prone low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (Ldlr–/–) mice, we show that these cells are detrimental throughout disease pathogenesis. We find that foamy macrophages with senescence markers accumulate in the subendothelial space at the onset of atherosclerosis, where they drive pathology by increasing expression of key atherogenic and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In advanced lesions, senescent cells promote features of plaque instability, including elastic fiber degradation and fibrous cap thinning, by heightening metalloprotease production. Together, these results demonstrate that senescent cells are key drivers of atheroma formation and maturation and suggest that selective clearance of these cells by senolytic agents holds promise for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

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