Report

Midbrain dopamine neurons control judgment of time

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science  09 Dec 2016:
Vol. 354, Issue 6317, pp. 1273-1277
DOI: 10.1126/science.aah5234

eLetters is an online forum for ongoing peer review. Submission of eLetters are open to all. eLetters are not edited, proofread, or indexed.  Please read our Terms of Service before submitting your own eLetter.

Compose eLetter

Plain text

  • Plain text
    No HTML tags allowed.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
Author Information
First or given name, e.g. 'Peter'.
Your last, or family, name, e.g. 'MacMoody'.
Your email address, e.g. higgs-boson@gmail.com
Your role and/or occupation, e.g. 'Orthopedic Surgeon'.
Your organization or institution (if applicable), e.g. 'Royal Free Hospital'.
Statement of Competing Interests
CAPTCHA

This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.

Image CAPTCHA
Enter the characters shown in the image.

Vertical Tabs

  • RE: An Artificial Humoral-Neural Network with Internal Clock
    • Cedric Fan, professor, MIT Information Quality Program- Data Quality & Info Security Lab, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, China
    • Other Contributors:
      • Amanda Cao, Visiting Fellow, Wolfson College, the University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 9BB, UK

    In their REPORT “Midbrain dopamine neurons control judgment of time” (Science 9 December 2016: Vol. 354 no. 6317 pp. 1273) and the PERSPECTIVE “Why does time seem to fly when we're having fun?” (Science 9 December 2016: Vol. 354 no. 6317 pp. 1231), Soares et al. (1) (2) found that in midbrain dopamine-secreting neurons, increased dopamine release speeds up an animal’s subjective sense of time—its internal clock.

    The finding is very useful and can be used for a kind of artificial humoral-neural networks, where the humor can have effect on the internal clock, the thresholds and the inputs of the nerve cells. Such as the local anesthetic can have an interdiction effect to all the nerve cells, no matter the peripheries or the centers, the afferent neurons or the efferent neurons, neuraxons or cytosomes, peripheral nerves or synapses. These effects include the increase of thresholds of excitation, the decrease of action potential and conduction velocity, the prolongation of refractory period and even the complete loss of the excitability and the conductibility. At the same time, the dopamine of the midbrain can also directly or indirectly affect the humor environment with the surprise signal function.

    This kind of artificial humoral-neural networks with internal clock can be applied to many optimization problems.

    REFERENCES
    1 Sofia Soares et al. , Science 354, 6317 (2016).
    2 Patrick Simen, Matthew Matell, Science 354, 6317 (2016).
    3...

    Show More
    Competing Interests: None declared.