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SOX2 promotes lineage plasticity and antiandrogen resistance in TP53- and RB1-deficient prostate cancer

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Science  06 Jan 2017:
Vol. 355, Issue 6320, pp. 84-88
DOI: 10.1126/science.aah4307

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Evading cancer drugs by identity fraud

Prostate cancer growth is fueled by male hormones called androgens. Drugs targeting the androgen receptor (AR) are initially efficacious, but most tumors eventually become resistant (see the Perspective by Kelly and Balk). Mu et al. found that prostate cancer cells escaped the effects of androgen deprivation therapy through a change in lineage identity. Functional loss of the tumor suppressors TP53 and RB1 promoted a shift from AR-dependent luminal epithelial cells to AR-independent basal-like cells. In related work, Ku et al. found that prostate cancer metastasis, lineage switching, and drug resistance were driven by the combined loss of the same tumor suppressors and were accompanied by increased expression of the epigenetic regulator Ezh2. Ezh2 inhibitors reversed the lineage switch and restored sensitivity to androgen deprivation therapy in experimental models.

Science, this issue p. 84, p. 78; see also p. 29

Abstract

Some cancers evade targeted therapies through a mechanism known as lineage plasticity, whereby tumor cells acquire phenotypic characteristics of a cell lineage whose survival no longer depends on the drug target. We use in vitro and in vivo human prostate cancer models to show that these tumors can develop resistance to the antiandrogen drug enzalutamide by a phenotypic shift from androgen receptor (AR)–dependent luminal epithelial cells to AR-independent basal-like cells. This lineage plasticity is enabled by the loss of TP53 and RB1 function, is mediated by increased expression of the reprogramming transcription factor SOX2, and can be reversed by restoring TP53 and RB1 function or by inhibiting SOX2 expression. Thus, mutations in tumor suppressor genes can create a state of increased cellular plasticity that, when challenged with antiandrogen therapy, promotes resistance through lineage switching.

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