The receptor kinase FER is a RALF-regulated scaffold controlling plant immune signaling

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Science  20 Jan 2017:
Vol. 355, Issue 6322, pp. 287-289
DOI: 10.1126/science.aal2541

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Small peptides allow rapid responses

RALFs (rapid alkalinization factors), a family of small peptides in plants, are produced in response to rapidly changing conditions. Stegmann et al. studied the agility and diversity built into this signaling network. Some RALFs, such as RALF23 and its relative RALF33, are activated by proteolytic cleavage. Others, such as RALF32, are not. RALF23 and RALF33 are called into play after a pathogen triggers immune responses. RALF32, on the other hand, regulates seedling growth. All three of these RALFs use the same receptor kinase, which can interact with other signaling components. Thus, plant responses can be fine-tuned by rapid release of peptides.

Science, this issue p. 287


In plants, perception of invading pathogens involves cell-surface immune receptor kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis SITE-1 PROTEASE (S1P) cleaves endogenous RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR (RALF) propeptides to inhibit plant immunity. This inhibition is mediated by the malectin-like receptor kinase FERONIA (FER), which otherwise facilitates the ligand-induced complex formation of the immune receptor kinases EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR) and FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2) with their co-receptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1–ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1) to initiate immune signaling. We show that FER acts as a RALF-regulated scaffold that modulates receptor kinase complex assembly. A similar scaffolding mechanism may underlie FER function in other signaling pathways.

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