ReportsNeuroscience

Branch-specific plasticity of a bifunctional dopamine circuit encodes protein hunger

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Science  05 May 2017:
Vol. 356, Issue 6337, pp. 534-539
DOI: 10.1126/science.aal3245

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Give us our daily protein

Protein is an essential component of our food, and protein intake thus must be actively regulated. Liu et al. identified a neural circuit that encodes protein-specific hunger in fruit flies. In protein-deprived animals, this circuit acted to simultaneously promote protein consumption and restrict sugar intake. Lack of protein induced changes in the protein-specific, but not sugar-specific, branch of this circuit.

Science, this issue p. 534

Abstract

Free-living animals must not only regulate the amount of food they consume but also choose which types of food to ingest. The shifting of food preference driven by nutrient-specific hunger can be essential for survival, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We identified a dopamine circuit that encodes protein-specific hunger in Drosophila. The activity of these neurons increased after substantial protein deprivation. Activation of this circuit simultaneously promoted protein intake and restricted sugar consumption, via signaling to distinct downstream neurons. Protein starvation triggered branch-specific plastic changes in these dopaminergic neurons, thus enabling sustained protein consumption. These studies reveal a crucial circuit mechanism by which animals adjust their dietary strategy to maintain protein homeostasis.

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