Research Articles

Jupiter’s interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

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Science  26 May 2017:
Vol. 356, Issue 6340, pp. 821-825
DOI: 10.1126/science.aal2108
  • Fig. 1 Orthographic projection of JunoCam color composite images of the north and south polar regions of Jupiter obtained 27 August 2016.

    The north polar image was taken at 11:59 UT when the spacecraft was 73,009 km from Jupiter’s cloud deck; the south polar image was taken at 13:56 UT when the spacecraft was 95,096 km from the cloud deck.

  • Fig. 2 Nadir brightness temperatures in the six channels of the MWR versus planetocentric latitude.

    The black and green curves are from the perijove passes on 27 August 2016 and 11 December 2016, for which the closest approaches were at 13:44 UTC and 17:05 UTC, respectively. The corresponding longitudes at equator crossing were 97°W and 7°W (system III). The frequencies of channels 1 to 6 are 0.6, 1.2, 2.6, 5.2, 10, and 22 GHz, respectively. Brightness temperature in kelvin is given at the left. Estimates of the pressure where the physical temperature is equal to the average brightness temperature are given below each curve. Underlying the plots of brightness temperature is a section of a Jupiter map taken by HST on 10 February 2016, in the visible wavelength range (PIA19643). The latitude of the bands has not changed during the months between the two data sets, but the longitudes of individual features have changed beyond the limits of the image. The white circles indicate the footprint sizes for channels 3 to 6, for which the full width at half power is 12° (these are shown sparsely for illustration, but the observations are in fact continuous in latitude). Channels 1 and 2 have full width at half power of 20°. The footprint size reflects the changing altitude of the spacecraft during its ~1-hour pass above the planet from north to south.

  • Fig. 3 Planetocentric latitude-altitude cross section of ammonia mixing ratio.

    The thin blue band at the top—near the 1-bar level—is where ammonia is condensing and the mixing ratio is low (<100 ppmv). The high mixing ratio at the equator is interpreted as air that is exchanging with the deep atmosphere at pressures of 100 bars or more, where the mixing ratio is 330 to 370 ppmv.

  • Fig. 4 Cylindrical map of the infrared emission from Jupiter as detected by JIRAM.

    The map is colored according to radiance in W m−2 sr−1 integrated from 4.5 to 5.0 μm. System III reference frame is used.

  • Fig. 5 Jupiter gravitational field coefficients J4 and J6.

    Pre-Juno observations from Campbell and Synnott (1985) (26) (purple), Jacobson (2003) (27) (JUP230, gray), and Jacobson (2013) (28) (JUP310, brown) are compared to Juno’s preliminary measurement (red); values are given in table S3. Overlain are model predictions by Nettelmann et al. (2012) (29), Hubbard and Militzer (2016) (39), and Miguel et al. (2016) (40).

  • Fig. 6 Magnitude of the magnetic field observed along Juno’s closest approach trajectory (solid line) as a function of time and spacecraft latitude, compared with that computed from a suite of existing models.

    The stippled region illustrates the range of such model predictions, bounded by the VIP4 model beneath and the GSFC O4 model above.

Supplementary Materials

  • Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    S. J. Bolton, A. Adriani, V. Adumitroaie, M. Allison, J. Anderson, S. Atreya, J. Bloxham, S. Brown, J. E. P. Connerney, E. DeJong, W. Folkner, D. Gautier, D. Grassi, S. Gulkis, T. Guillot, C. Hansen, W. B. Hubbard, L. Iess, A. Ingersoll, M. Janssen, J. Jorgensen, Y. Kaspi, S. M. Levin, C. Li, J. Lunine, Y. Miguel, A. Mura, G. Orton, T. Owen, M. Ravine, E. Smith, P. Steffes, E. Stone, D. Stevenson, R. Thorne, J. Waite, D. Durante, R. W. Ebert, T. K. Greathouse, V. Hue, M. Parisi, J. R. Szalay, R. Wilson

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Figs. S1 to S4
    • Tables S1 to S4
    • References